Dr Andy Gardner


Dyers Brae 19
tel. 01334 463385
fax. 01334 463366

I work on Darwinian adaptation. Natural selection explains the appearance of design in the living world, but at what level is this design expected to manifest – gene, individual, society – and what is its function? Social evolution provides a window on this problem, by pitting the interests of genes, individuals and societies against each other. I develop general theory on the topics of inclusive fitness and multilevel selection, and also tailor general theory to the biology of particular species to facilitate empirical testing. I work on a wide range of biological systems, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, crustaceans, insects, fish and humans.

For more information about my research and PhD / postdoc opportunities in my lab, visit my website at http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/gardner/.



Gardner, A 2018, Group selection. in Oxford Bibliographies in Evolutionary Biology. Oxford University Press.
Gardner, A & Úbeda, F 2017, 'The meaning of intragenomic conflict' Nature Ecology and Evolution. DOI: 10.1038/s41559-017-0354-9
Gardner, A 2017, 'The purpose of adaptation' Interface Focus, vol 7, no. 5, 20170005. DOI: 10.1098/rsfs.2017.0005
Lythgoe, KA, Gardner, A, Pybus, OG & Grove, J 2017, 'Short-sighted virus evolution and a germline hypothesis for chronic viral infections' Trends in Microbiology, vol 25, no. 5, pp. 336-348. DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.003
Micheletti, AJC, Ruxton, GD & Gardner, A 2017, 'Intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in human warfare' Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol 284, no. 1849. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2016.2699
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