University of St Andrews

Prof Patrick Miller

Bute Building
University of St Andrews
St Andrews
KY16 9TS

My research focuses on social communication and behavioral ecology of marine mammals. I record and describe the behaviour patterns of marine mammals in order to elucidate their function, often using novel research tools. I seek to unravel how the marine environment and anthropogenic stressor such as sonar might influence foraging, social interactions, swimming behaviour, and body condition. 

Current Projects

Novel methods to study body condition of cetaceans at sea

Body condition influences how animals trade-off foraging and anti-predator behaviors, and modulates responses to human disturbance. However, current methods for estimating lipid store body condition in cetaceans are descriptive or do not measure full-body fat stores. In this study, we are working to validate, establish and utilize a novel, non-invasive method to measure total body lipid-stores of free-ranging cetaceans by analysis of their underwater swimming pattern. The results of this study will establish and validate an innovative technique to measure body condition in cetaceans, and examine the interplay of body condition with foraging and anti-predator behaviors and reproductive status of females.

Killer whales in the North Atlantic

Killer whales are generalist predators as a species, but each population seems to be remarkably specialized on certain prey types. This project seeks to describe natural behaviour of killer whales in the North Atlantic, focusing upon interatctions between foraging behaviour, social interactions and acoustic communication of herring-feeding killer whales.  Work in this area also seeks to explore interactions of killer whales with other speces, and how killer whales respond to underwater noise.

Effects of noise on cetaceans and other animals

The underwater environment is subject to the input of noise from human activities, but there are wide gaps in our understanding about how noise might affect marine mammals.  My work within the international collaboration known as '3S' has focused on describe how several species of cetaceans respond to experimental presentation of sonar and various control sounds including killer whale sounds. To aid in management of this important problem, a key component of this work is to determine the levels of noise at which respnoses start  I am using animal models ranging from the fruit fly D montana to long-finned pilot whale to explore how noise influences communication systems and how signallers might respond to noise within ecological and evolutionary time scales.



Tavares, SB, Samarra, FIP & Miller, PJO 2016, 'A multilevel society of herring-eating killer whales indicates adaptation to prey characteristics' Behavioral Ecology, vol Advance Access. DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arw179
Sivle, LD, Wensveen, PJ, Kvadsheim, P, Lam, F-PA, Visser, F, Cure, C, Harris, CM, Tyack, PL & Miller, P 2016, 'Naval sonar disrupts foraging behaviour in humpback whales' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 562, pp. 211-220. DOI: 10.3354/meps11969
Gaëtan, R, Filatova, OA, Samarra, FIP, Fedutin, ID, Lammers, M & Miller, P 2016, 'Icelandic herring-eating killer whales feed at night' Marine Biology. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-016-3059-8
Southall, BL, Nowacek, DP, Miller, PJO & Tyack, PL 2016, 'Experimental field studies to measure behavioral responses of cetaceans to sonar' Endangered Species Research, vol 31, pp. 293-315. DOI: 10.3354/esr00764
Aguilar De Soto, N, Gkikopoulou, K, Hooker, S, Isojunno, S, Johnson, M, Miller, P, Tyack, P, Wensveen, P, Donovan, C, Harris, CM, Harris, D, Marshall, L, Oedekoven, C, Prieto, R & Thomas, L 2016, 'From physiology to policy: a review of physiological noise effects on marine fauna with implications for mitigation' Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, vol 27, no. 1, 040008. DOI: 10.1121/2.0000299
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