University of St Andrews

Dr Valerie Smith

Scottish Oceans Institute
East Sands
University of St Andrews
St Andrews
KY16 8LB

Education Secretary, International Society for Developmental and Comparative Immunology (ISDCI).

Editorial Board Member: Fish and Shellfish Immunology
Editorial Advisory Board Member: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Honorary Professor: Department of Health, Florida InternationalUniversity, Miami, Florida 1996-1997.
Awards: Burroughs Wellcome Visiting Professor, American Societyfor Microbiology: Florida International University, Miami, Florida(1997-1998)


Research group: Dr. Christopher Hauton, Dr John Hammond, Ms Virginia Burgess, Mr. Andrew Desbois.

Collaborators: Dr Liz Dyrynda, School of Life Sciences, Heriot Watt University
Dr Margarita Concha, Institute of Biochemistry, University Austral Chile, Valdivia, Chile
Dr J-R Bonami University of Montpellier II, France
Dr Janet Brown, Institute of Aquaculture, Stirling
Prof Miki Nakao, School of Bioresouce and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, Japan
Dr Sylvia L. Smith, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, USA
Dr Ailsa Hall, SMRU, Gatty Laboratory, Unversity of St Andrews
Dr Graham Kemp, BMS, University of St Andrews
Dr Gerard Molle, University of Montpellier 2, France
Dr Andrew Means Spragg, Aquapharm Biodiversity, Ltd, Scotland



Desbois, AP & Smith, VJ 2015, ' Disk Diffusion Assay to Assess the Antimicrobial Activity of Marine Algal Extracts '. in Natural Products From Marine Algae: Marine algae are a relatively untapped source of bioactive natural products, including those with antimicrobial activities. The ability to assess the antimicrobial activity of cell extracts derived from algal cultures is vital to identifying species that may produce useful novel antibiotics. One assay that is used widely for this purpose is the disk diffusion assay due to its simplicity, rapidity, and low cost. Moreover, this assay gives output data that are easy to interpret and can be used to screen many samples at once irrespective of the solvent used during preparation. In this chapter, a step-by-step protocol for performing a disk diffusion assay is described. The assay is particularly well suited to testing algal cell extracts and fractions resulting from separation through bioassay-guided approaches.. vol. 1308, Springer, pp. 403.
Robb, C, Dyrynda, E, Gray, R, Rossi, A & Smith, VJ 2014, ' Invertebrate extracellular phagocyte traps show that chromatin is an ancient defence weapon ' Nature Communications , vol 5, 4627.
Andrews, PLR, Darmaillacq, A-S, Dennison, N, Gleadall, IG, Hawkins, P, Messenger, JB, Osorio, D , Smith, VJ & Smith, JA 2013, ' The identification and management of pain, suffering and distress in cephalopods, including anaesthesia, analgesia and humane killing ' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology , vol 447, pp. 46-64.
Smith, VJ 2011, ' Phylogeny of whey acidic protein (WAP) four-disulfide core proteins and their role in lower vertebrates and invertebrates ' Biochemical Society Transactions , vol 39, no. 5, pp. 1403-1408.
Smith, VJ , Roulston, C & Dyrynda, EA 2010, ' The Shrimp Immune System '. in V Alday-Sanz (ed.), The Shrimp Book. 1 edn, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham UK, pp. 89-148.
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